The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
|Published (Last):||25 January 2006|
|PDF File Size:||9.43 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||7.47 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In first-language writing instruction, therefore, particularly in higher education, a great deal of emphasis is placed on originality of thought, the development of ideas, and the soundness of the writer’s logic. Writing and critical thinking are seen as closely linked, and expertise in writing is seen as an indication that students have mastered the cognitive skills required for university work.
One of the important insights brought out in the Hayes-Flower model is the fact that writing is a recursive and not a linear process: What are the cognitive processes, or mental activities, involved in writing?
Grabowski notes that: Hayes and Flower described the writing process in terms of the task environment, which included the writing assignment and the text produced so far, the writer’s long-term memory, including knowledge of topic, knowledge of audience, and stored writing plans, and a number of cognitive processes, including planning, translating thought into text, and revising see Figure 2.
These variations are learned primarily through the educa- tional system, either directly as in English, where certain rhetorical patterns are explicitly taught or indirectly through extensive exposure to culture-specific patterns of discourse.
English as a Second Language. It is thus of central importance to students in academic and second language programs throughout the world. Lyle in particular has been willing to read and comment in detail on many drafts of each chapter, and I would like to acknowledge his many contributions to the book.
Faeze rated it really liked it Jul 11, A common factor for both groups of children is that their first language is still devel- oping, and that, like first- language writers, writing is very weigl a school-based and school-oriented activity. For example, Hughes argues weile in general language proficiency testing, writing tasks that require examinees to use their own content knowledge asseesing not be used, stating that ‘in language testing, we are not normally interested in knowing whether students are creative, imaginative, or even intelligent, have wide general knowledge, or have good reasons for the opinions they happen to hold.
Reliability can be defined as consistency of measurement across different characteristics or facets of a testing situation, such as dif- ferent prompts and different raters. Another problematic area in terms of authenticity is English for academic purposes, one of the most common arenas for testing writing.
Assessing Writing by Sara Cushing Weigle
This is particularly the case for foreign-language learners; second-language learners in the first group have a greater and more immediate need for basic writing, and instruction for these students thus tends to include more writing earlier on of the ‘survival’ type, such as writing one’s name and address and filling out basic forms. Cultural aspects of writing The cultural aspects of writing have also been the subject of some controversy. Bereiter and Scardamalia asssessing the importance of the interactive elements in conversation that are absent in writing: Lists with This Book.
Other motivations besides the desire to integrate into the culture may influence writing as well. These strategies are then compared to the strategies that would be predicted based on a theoretical definition of the construct. Wriing there has been a considerable body Bereiter and Scardamalia supply a quote from a year-old that describes this process quite aptly: First, writers may not be able to detect global problems because of poor reading skills.
Assessing Reading Cambridge Language Assessment. What will we do with the information that we get from the test? The implication for the testing of writing is that writing ability cannot be validly abstracted from the contexts in which writing takes place.
In addition, Gayle Nelson and Pat Dunkel have used drafts of several chapters of this book in their courses, and the feedback of their students has been helpful in improving the final product.
However, as we shall see, designing a good test of writing involves much more than simply thinking of a topic for test takers to write about and then using our own judgement to rank order the resulting writing samples. Accomplishing this task requires a number of factors other than language knowledge. Consequently, the written product may not match the writer’s original intention.
The remainder of this section deals briefly with these issues. She then proposes a conceptual framework for designing and devel- oping writing assessments. Of course, as McNamara points out, if the wekgle is done in a testing situation, the writer assesxing not be genuinely motivated to apologize to the reader, any more than the reader will be genuinely moved to forgiveness – the closest we can hope for as readers is to imagine that we would feel satisfied with the apology if we in fact had been offended in this specific way by the writer.
Finally, lin- guistic knowledge includes knowledge about the language resources that are brought to bear in the writing process.
Follow the Author
What tasks should be used? High-stakes Basic considerations in assessing writing 41 decisions have a significant impact on the lives of individuals or on programs, and are not easily reversed, so that errors in these decisions can be difficult to correct.
Miss Moka marked it as to-read Jan 30, I will discuss each of these types of evi- dence briefly. Mastery of this standard system is an important prerequisite of cultural and educational participation and the maintenance of one’s rights and duties. To resolve this apparent contradiction, Bereiter and Scardamalia propose a distinction between knowledge telling and knowledge transforming. Book Description This book provides language teachers with guidelines to develop suitable writing tests.
Hussain rated it liked it Aug 04, This book attempts to outline answers to these questions, and is organized in the following way.
Set up a giveaway. Hayes’ model of working memory is based upon a well-known conception of working memory developed by Baddeleywith some modifications. Conventions of language voice, tone, style, accuracy, mechanics are important as well, but frequently these are seen as secondary matters, to be ad- dressed after matters of content and organization. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.
Since writing tasks are fre- quently based on source texts, there is an obvious relationship between the ability to understand the source text and the ability to use information from the text in one’s writing.